J Cancer 2020; 11(19):5656-5664. doi:10.7150/jca.46391

Research Paper

High serum Androgen and Insulin concentrations increase the tendency of Endometrial Carcinoma

Fei Teng*, Xiaotong Ma*, Xiaopei Yu, Ye Yan, Jing Zhao, Jinping Gao, Chao Gao, Yingmei Wang, Wenyan Tian, Fengxia Xue

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this study.

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Citation:
Teng F, Ma X, Yu X, Yan Y, Zhao J, Gao J, Gao C, Wang Y, Tian W, Xue F. High serum Androgen and Insulin concentrations increase the tendency of Endometrial Carcinoma. J Cancer 2020; 11(19):5656-5664. doi:10.7150/jca.46391. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v11p5656.htm

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Abstract

Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the important role played by androgen and insulin in the development of endometrial carcinoma (EC), and their combined effect on EC risk.

Methods: We enrolled 510 type I EC patients and 510 age-, time-, and nationality-matched subjects into this study. Metabolic and hormonal parameters of enrolled subjects were examined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses for EC and control subjects were performed. Type I EC risk was evaluated with respect to testosterone, androstenedione, and insulin levels based on odds ratios (ORs) using stratified data.

Results: EC risk was positively associated with C-peptide, estrone, androgen (including testosterone and androstenedione) and insulin levels, BMI, WHR, family history of cancer, nulliparity, irregular menstruation, diabetes, and hypertension. In multivariate logistic regression models, high C-peptide and testosterone levels, diabetes, and hypertension were independent risk factors after adjustment for BMI, WHR, family history of cancer, high serum insulin, and estrone levels. Increased serum total testosterone and insulin levels were positively correlated with EC risk in total, premenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Androstenedione was correlated with EC in total and postmenopausal, but not in premenopausal subjects. Compared with higher testosterone and insulin, odds ratios (ORs) for higher testosterone with lower insulin and lower testosterone with higher insulin were decreased in total, premenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Similarly, compared to both higher FAI and insulin, ORs for higher FAI with lower insulin and lower FAI with higher insulin were decreased in all three groups. Coordinately, ORs for higher androstenedione with lower insulin and lower androstenedione with higher insulin were decreased in total and postmenopausal, but not premenopausal subjects.

Conclusions: These findings suggested that androgen and insulin were risk factors of type I EC, and relatively high levels of both testosterone and insulin synergistically affected EC risk.

Keywords: endometrial carcinoma (EC), testosterone, androstenedione, insulin, cancer risk