J Cancer 2019; 10(13):3054-3061. doi:10.7150/jca.30486

Research Paper

Carcinoma of the lower female genital tract in patients with genitourinary malformations: a clinicopathologic analysis of 36 cases

Liju Zong1, Wenze Wang2, Yonglan He3, Ninghai Cheng1, Yang Xiang1✉

1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100730, Beijing, China
2. Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100730, Beijing, China
3. Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100730, Beijing, China

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Citation:
Zong L, Wang W, He Y, Cheng N, Xiang Y. Carcinoma of the lower female genital tract in patients with genitourinary malformations: a clinicopathologic analysis of 36 cases. J Cancer 2019; 10(13):3054-3061. doi:10.7150/jca.30486. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v10p3054.htm

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Abstract

Background: Lower genital tract carcinomas that coexist with genitourinary malformations are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of patients with this rare joint condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of these patients to analyze the associations among clinicopathologic features in this rare entity.

Methods: The medical records of patients with carcinoma of lower genital tract combined with genital tract malformations who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (Beijing, China) between January 1995 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed and a comprehensive literature review was performed. The correlations between variables were determined using Fisher's exact test.

Results: Thirty-six patients were identified, among whom 22 had cervical carcinoma, 10 had vaginal carcinoma, and two had carcinomas of both the cervix and vagina. The most common genital tract anomaly was uterus didelphys (n=17), and 63.9% of patients had with urinary tract malformations. Twenty-five (69.4%) had pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma, 10 (27.8%) had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 1 had adenosquamous carcinoma. Patients with urinary tract malformations developed adenocarcinoma more frequently than those without malformations (95.7% vs. 30.8% P<0.001). Compared with patients with SCC, patients with adenocarcinoma presented at a younger age (36.1 vs. 47.0 years, P=0.011), had more advanced stages disease (57.7% vs. 10.0% were in stage II-IV, P=0.022), and tended to have poorer five-year overall survival rates (75.6% vs. 100.0%, P=0.279).

Conclusions: Patients with simultaneous malformations of the genital and urinary tracts had a high probability of developing adenocarcinoma. It is recommended that rigorous gynecologic exams with Pap smears and imaging analyses be performed periodically in women with genital malformations, as they may be at a risk of genital malignancies.

Keywords: cervical carcinoma, vaginal carcinoma, unilateral renal agenesis, Müllerian duct anomalies