J Cancer 2021; 12(14):4240-4246. doi:10.7150/jca.48043

Research Paper

Tumor-derived Exosome Promotes Metastasis via Altering its Phenotype and Inclusions

Yu Zhou1,2, Fan Chen2, Xiaodong Xie1,2, Huifang Nie2, Shu Lian1,2, Chunlian Zhong1, Chengbin Fu3, Weiyu Shen2, Bifei Li2, Yongqing Ye4, Yusheng Lu1,2✉, Lee Jia1,2✉

1. Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, 350108, China.
2. Cancer Metastasis Alert and Prevention Center, and Biopharmaceutical Photocatalysis of State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Cancer Metastasis Chemoprevention and Chemotherapy, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350116, China.
3. Department of Breast Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, China.
4. Fujian Sanyi Hematopoietic Technology Co. Ltd., Fuzhou 350108, China.

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Zhou Y, Chen F, Xie X, Nie H, Lian S, Zhong C, Fu C, Shen W, Li B, Ye Y, Lu Y, Jia L. Tumor-derived Exosome Promotes Metastasis via Altering its Phenotype and Inclusions. J Cancer 2021; 12(14):4240-4246. doi:10.7150/jca.48043. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v12p4240.htm

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Although tumor-derived exosomes play an important role in the process of metastasis, differences in exosomes secreted by the same cells at different stages or conditions have not been noticed by most of the relevant researchers. Here we developed a lung cancer model in nude mice, and the phenotype and inclusions of exosomes secreted by early and advanced tumors were analysed. The size distribution and surface topography of these two exosomes were not significantly different, but the expression of CD63 in early tumor exosome (E-exosome) was significantly lower than that in advanced tumor exosome (A-exosome). α-SMA expression on HELF cells treated with A-exosome was significantly higher than that treated with E-exosome. The ability of A-exosome to promote the migration of A549 cells was better than E-exosome. Furthermore, small RNA sequence showed that only 3 of the 171 detected-small RNAs were expressed simultaneously in both exosomes. These findings proved that there are significant differences in inclusions and functions between the early and late exosomes of the same tumor. The study highlights the importance of exosomes in cancer metastasis, and might suggest exosomes can be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer metastasis.

Keywords: Tumor-derived exosome, miRNA, α-SMA, early tumor, advanced tumor, cancer metastasis