J Cancer 2021; 12(5):1555-1562. doi:10.7150/jca.53482

Research Paper

Apatinib as non-first-line treatment in patients with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

Jinzhu Mao1#, Xu Yang1#, Jianzhen Lin1,2#, Xiaobo Yang1, Dongxu Wang1, Lei Zhang1, Yi Bai1, Jin Bian1, Junyu Long1, Fucun Xie1, Hanchun Huang1, Xinting Sang1, Shuguang Chen3✉, Haitao Zhao1✉

1. Department of Liver Surgery, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College (CAMS & PUMC), Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.
2. Pancreas Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University; Pancreas Institute, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210000, China.
3. Department of General Surgery, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College (CAMS & PUMC), Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.
#These authors contributed equally to this work.

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Citation:
Mao J, Yang X, Lin J, Yang X, Wang D, Zhang L, Bai Y, Bian J, Long J, Xie F, Huang H, Sang X, Chen S, Zhao H. Apatinib as non-first-line treatment in patients with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. J Cancer 2021; 12(5):1555-1562. doi:10.7150/jca.53482. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v12p1555.htm

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Abstract

Purpose: There is limited standard treatment for patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma after refractory of chemotherapy. Apatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting VEGFR-2, which exhibited broad-spectrum antitumor activities in previous studies. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib as non-first-line treatment in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma.

Methods: This was a prospective open-label phase II trial (NCT03251443). Patients with pathology-confirmed cholangiocarcinoma after prior systemic therapy were enrolled. Participants were treated with apatinib 500 mg orally once daily. The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR).

Results: Between August 8, 2017 and November 13, 2018, 30 patients participated in this study, and 26 patients received apatinib treatment except 4 patients withdrew consent before the first dosage. For full analysis set, the ORR was 11.5% and the disease control rate was 50.0%. 3 patients (11.5%) achieved partial response and no patients achieved complete response. The median progression free time was 2.0 (95% CI: 0.7-3.3) months and median overall survival was 9. 0 (95% CI: 4.6-13.4) months. The most common adverse events of any grade were fatigue (80.8%), hypertension (73.1%) and decreased appetite (38.5%). Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 23.1% patients and no grade 4 adverse events occurred. The most common grade 3 adverse events were hypertension (23.1%) and elevated transaminase (11.5%).

Conclusion: Apatinib as non-first-line monotherapy has potential therapeutic efficacy in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, anti-angiogenesis therapy, Apatinib, efficacy, safety