1. Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, China.
2. Digestive Disease Center, the Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 628 Zhenyuan Road, Shenzhen 518000, China.
3. Laboratory of General Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Background: Tac2-N (TC2N) is a tandem C2 domain-containing protein, acting as a novel oncogene or suppressor in different kinds of cancers. However, the status of TC2N expression and its significance in gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of TC2N level in GC.
Methods: We used sequencing data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to analyze TC2N expression in GC by UALCAN database and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis tools (GEPIA). TC2N expression level in 12 pairs of fresh GC tissues and adjacent nontumorous tissues was detected by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) assays. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to detect TC2N protein expression in Paraffin-embedded tissues in our center. In vitro proliferation, migration and invasion assays were used to evaluate the effect of TC2N on functional capability of gastric cancer cells. LinkedOmics was used to identify gene expressions associated with TC2N.
Results: The mRNA and protein expression of TC2N in gastric cancer were both significantly higher than normal gastric mucosa. It was also elevated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric epithelium cell. In vitro assays suggested that TC2N facilitated proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Bioinformatic analysis showed a widespread impact of TC2N on the transcriptome and a strong interaction with tumor associated genes. We also found that TC2N was an independent prognostic factor for long-term survival in GC patients and its high expression was evidently associated with poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival.
Conclusions: Our results show that high level of TC2N correlates with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer and promotes the development of gastric cancer. Thus, TC2N expression can serve as a prognostic biomarker for patients with gastric cancer.
Keywords: TC2N, Gastric cancer, Prognosis