J Cancer 2020; 11(24):7368-7377. doi:10.7150/jca.50752

Research Paper

The clinical and prognostic implication of deep stromal invasion in cervical cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy

Jun Zhu1,2, Lijie Cao1,2, Hao Wen1,2, Rui Bi1,3, Xiaohua Wu1,2✉, Guihao Ke1,2✉

1. Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai 200032, China.
2. Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dong-An Road, Shanghai 200032, China.
3. Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dong-An Road, Shanghai 200032, China.

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Citation:
Zhu J, Cao L, Wen H, Bi R, Wu X, Ke G. The clinical and prognostic implication of deep stromal invasion in cervical cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy. J Cancer 2020; 11(24):7368-7377. doi:10.7150/jca.50752. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v11p7368.htm

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Abstract

Background: To evaluate the patterns of recurrence and survival related to deep stromal invasion (DSI) in cervical cancer patients who underwent the radical surgery.

Methods: Patients with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 stage IB and IIA and definite pathology-confirmed deep stromal invasion between 03/2006 and 06/2014 were collected. A subcategorization of deep stromal invasion (inner full-thickness, full-thickness and outer full-thickness) were performed. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis and independent predictors were identified using Cox regression analysis.

Results: A total of 3,298 cervical cancer patients were included. The proportion of patients with outer 1/3 to full-thickness invasion, full-thickness invasion and outer-full-thickness invasion were 60.6%, 33.5% and 5.9%, respectively. Deep stromal invasion strongly correlated with patients' age, stage, menopause status, tumor diameter, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), nodal metastasis, parametrial and vaginal involvement, as well as the site of recurrence. However, no connection was found between the DSI and tumor histologic type. Upon further analysis, patients with full- and outer-full-thickness invasion exhibited significantly higher recurrence rates compared to inner full-thickness group. Both DFS and OS was independently associated with the depth of deep stromal invasion. By subgroup analysis, multivariate analysis revealed that only adjuvant radiotherapy was independent risk factors for both DFS and OS in isolated full-thickness invasion patients.

Conclusions: This study indicated that the depth of deep stromal invasion is an important prognostic factor in patients with cervical cancer. Patients with full-thickness invasion should receive customized adjuvant treatment.

Keywords: cervical cancer, deep stromal invasion (DSI), full-thickness, disease recurrence, survival