1. Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Samkwang Medical Laboratories, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2. Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
3. Department of Pathology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon-Si, Kangwon-Do, Republic of Korea
4. Department of Pathology, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression provides significant value to predict prognosis and response following immunotherapy in several types of cancers. However, its clinicopathological and prognostic significance in melanoma remains unclear. PD-L1 and the number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were investigated in 63 Korean patients with melanoma based on the melanoma scoring system. We also compared the results using the PD-L1 antibodies—22C3 and E1L3N clones. In addition, BRAF gene mutation was detected using anti-BRAF antibody and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall, 29 (46.0%), 16 (25.4%), and 18 (28.6%) patients exhibited the acral lentiginous type, nodular type, and other histological subtypes of melanoma, respectively. PD-L1 expression was detected in 37 (58.7%) cases and was closely associated with a CD8+TILhigh phenotype (P < 0.001). Combined survival analysis depending on PD-L1 and CD8+TILs status showed that the PD-L1-/CD8+TILhigh group demonstrated the best survival outcome, whereas patients with PD-L1+/CD8+ TILlow showed the worst prognosis (P = 0.039). However, PD-L1+/CD8+ TILlow was not an independent prognostic factor. The 22C3 and E1L3N clones showed a high concordance rate (kappa value, 0.799). BRAF mutation status was not correlated with PD-L1 expression. We suggest that evaluation of the combined status of PD-L1 and TIL might be useful to predict the survival of patients with melanoma.
Keywords: melanoma, prognosis, programmed death ligand 1, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, 22C3