J Cancer 2021; 12(21):6473-6483. doi:10.7150/jca.63879

Research Paper

Tracking cancer lesions on surgical samples of gastric cancer by artificial intelligent algorithms

Ruixin Yang1#, Chao Yan1#, Sheng Lu1, Jun Li1, Jun Ji1, Ranlin Yan1, Fei Yuan2, Zhenggang Zhu1✉, Yingyan Yu1✉

1. Department of General Surgery of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Surgery, and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Gastric Neoplasms, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 200025, Shanghai, China.
2. Department of Pathology of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 200025, Shanghai, China.
#These authors contributed equally to this work.

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Citation:
Yang R, Yan C, Lu S, Li J, Ji J, Yan R, Yuan F, Zhu Z, Yu Y. Tracking cancer lesions on surgical samples of gastric cancer by artificial intelligent algorithms. J Cancer 2021; 12(21):6473-6483. doi:10.7150/jca.63879. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v12p6473.htm

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Abstract

To quickly locate cancer lesions, especially suspected metastatic lesions after gastrectomy, AI algorithms of object detection and semantic segmentation were established. A total of 509 macroscopic images from 381 patients were collected. The RFB-SSD object detection algorithm and ResNet50-PSPNet semantic segmentation algorithm were used. Another 57 macroscopic images from 48 patients were collected for prospective verification. We used mAP as the metrics of object detection. The best mAP was 95.90% with an average of 89.89% in the test set. The mAP reached 92.60% in validation set. We used mIoU for evaluation of semantic segmentation. The best mIoU was 80.97% with an average of 79.26% in the test set. In addition, 81 out of 92 (88.04%) gastric specimens were accurately predicted for the cancer lesion located at the serosa by ResNet50-PSPNet semantic segmentation model. The positive rate and accuracy of AI prediction were different based on cancer invasive depth. The metastatic lymph nodes were predicted in 24 cases by semantic segmentation model. Among them, 18 cases were confirmed by pathology. The predictive accuracy was 75.00%. Our well-trained AI algorithms effectively identified the subtle features of gastric cancer in resected specimens that may be missed by naked eyes. Taken together, AI algorithms could assist clinical doctors quickly locating cancer lesions and improve their work efficiency.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Object Detection, Semantic Segmentation, Gastric Cancer, Macroscopic Images