J Cancer 2021; 12(11):3136-3144. doi:10.7150/jca.54624

Research Paper

Association Between Smoking And Cancers Among Women: Results From The FRiCaM Multisite Cohort Study

Angelo Giosuè Mezzoiuso1,2, Anna Odone2,3, Carlo Signorelli2,3, Antonio Giampiero Russo1✉

1. Epidemiology Unit, Agency for Health Protection of Milan, Corso Italia 52, 20122, Milan, Italy.
2. Faculty of Medicine, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
3. Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

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Citation:
Mezzoiuso AG, Odone A, Signorelli C, Russo AG. Association Between Smoking And Cancers Among Women: Results From The FRiCaM Multisite Cohort Study. J Cancer 2021; 12(11):3136-3144. doi:10.7150/jca.54624. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v12p3136.htm

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Abstract

Background: Smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and it is strongly associated with several human cancers. However, the differential effects of cigarette smoke on the development and progression of different types of cancer remain unclear, and related data are limited.

Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study conducted among 75,324 women aged 41-76 years, we aimed to evaluate the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke on cancer development. The participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, health status, and lifestyle habits, including smoking and dietary habits; Cox proportional hazards regression modelling was used to evaluate the association between smoking and 21 different types of cancer.

Results: After a 15-year follow-up, we identified 9,487 cases of cancer through record linkage with the Cancer Registry of Milan. Smoking was found to be positively associated with all neoplasms, with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.10 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.04-1.16). Regarding the specific types, we found the following associations: cancer of the oral cavity HR = 2.63 ( 95% CI 1.72-4.01]), oesophagus HR = 3.09 (95% CI 1.37-6.96), stomach HR = 1.52 (95% CI 1.10-2.11), pancreas HR = 1.69 (95% CI 1.29-2.21), larynx HR= 34.81 (95% CI 8.07-150.14), lung HR = 8.48 (95% CI 7.09-10.14), cervix uteri HR = 2.51 (95% CI 1.38-4.57), and bladder and urinary tract HR = 5.67 ( 95% CI 3.96-8.14); lymphoma HR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.03-1.83); and colorectal cancer HR = 1.30 (95% CI 1.11-1.51).

Conclusions: Our results thus demonstrate how smoke exposure increases the risk of several types of cancer. Considering the increasing prevalence of smoking among women, our results highlight the need to prioritize the development of anti-smoking campaigns targeted at women in order to contrast the evident gender inequality with respect to healthcare.

Keywords: neoplasms, tobacco smoking, smoking, cohort studies, women's health.