J Cancer 2020; 11(19):5678-5688. doi:10.7150/jca.45918

Research Paper

TRPV1 acts as a Tumor Suppressor and is associated with Immune Cell Infiltration in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: evidence from integrated analysis

Long Zheng1, Xiaojie Dou2, Huijia Song3, Ruixia Gao3✉, Xiaoshuang Tang2✉

1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China.
2. Department of Urology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China.
3. School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China.

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Citation:
Zheng L, Dou X, Song H, Gao R, Tang X. TRPV1 acts as a Tumor Suppressor and is associated with Immune Cell Infiltration in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: evidence from integrated analysis. J Cancer 2020; 11(19):5678-5688. doi:10.7150/jca.45918. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v11p5678.htm

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Abstract

Differential expression of TRPV1 has been detected in many cancer types, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the clinical significance of TRPV1 expression profile in ccRCC has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this study, TRPV1 expression in ccRCC and other cancer types was analyzed based on data from the GEO and Oncomine databases. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed for further validation in human ccRCC tissue chips. Survival and correlation analyses of TRPV1 were conducted using Kaplan-Meier Plotter (KM-Plotter) and the Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database. TRPV1 exhibited a low expression profile in 2 GEO datasets (GSE6344, GSE36895) and 4 Oncomine datasets (Gumz, Lenburg, Beroukhim 1 and Beroukhim 2), as also confirmed by IHC staining. Survival analysis indicated that high enrichment of TRPV1 significantly predicted a better overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 1, 3, 5 and 10 years in ccRCC patients. TIMER analysis showed that TRPV1 copy number alterations (CNA) were closely related to immune cell infiltration. The detailed results indicated that TRPV1 expression was positively correlated with the infiltration level of CD4+ T cells, but negatively correlated with B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells infiltration. In addition, TRPV1 might also be inversely related to abundance of the regulatory T cells (Treg) and the M2 subset of macrophages. Finally, we found that TRPV1 expression was tightly associated with several key molecules of the classical pathways in ccRCC, such as VHL, TP53, HIF1A, MTOR, MAPK1, MET, CTNNB1, etc. Our research work suggests that TRPV1 is a novel tumor suppressor and prognosis marker for ccRCC and is of great value for further exploration.

Keywords: TRPV1, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, survival analysis, immune cell infiltration, bioinformatic analysis