Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center of China, Beijing, China
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the seventh most diagnosed cancer and the tenth leading cause of cancer mortality in China. Unlike the USA, both incidence and mortality continue to increase. In China, PCa is often diagnosed at a locally advanced or metastatic stage, resulting in a high mortality-to-incidence ratio. Implementing regular screening using a well-validated biomarker may result in the earlier diagnosis of localized disease. Furthermore, it is important to be able to distinguish between low-grade and high-grade disease, to avoid subjecting patients to unnecessary biopsies, undertreatment of significant disease, or overtreatment of indolent disease. While prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is commonly used in PCa screening around the world, its relationship to PCa is still unclear and results vary widely across different studies. New biomarkers, imaging techniques and risk predictive models have been developed in recent years to improve upon the accurate detection of high-grade PCa. Blood- and urine-based biomarkers, such as PSA isoforms, prostate cancer antigen 3, or mRNA transcripts, have been used to improve the detection of high-grade PCa. These markers have also been used to create risk predictive models, which can further improve PCa detection. Furthermore, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is becoming increasingly accessible for the detection of PCa. Because of ethnic variations, biomarkers and risk predictive models validated in Western populations cannot be directly applied to Chinese men. Validation of new biomarkers and risk predictive models in the Chinese population may improve PCa screening and reduce mortality of this disease in China.
Keywords: prostate cancer, biomarkers, risk predictive models