J Cancer 2019; 10(27):6896-6902. doi:10.7150/jca.34103

Research Paper

Role of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Stage Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma after Radical Nephroureterectomy: Competing Risk Analysis after Propensity Score-Matching

Minyong Kang1,2, Heejin Yoo3, Kyunga Kim3, Si Hyun Sung1, Hwang Gyun Jeon1, Se Hoon Park4, Seong Il Seo1, Seong Soo Jeon1, Hyun Moo Lee1, Han Yong Choi5, Byong Chang Jeong1✉

1. Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine;
2. Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University;
3. Statistics and Data Center, Samsung Medical Center;
4. Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine;
5. Department of Urology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

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Citation:
Kang M, Yoo H, Kim K, Sung SH, Jeon HG, Park SH, Seo SI, Jeon SS, Lee HM, Choi HY, Jeong BC. Role of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Stage Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma after Radical Nephroureterectomy: Competing Risk Analysis after Propensity Score-Matching. J Cancer 2019; 10(27):6896-6902. doi:10.7150/jca.34103. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v10p6896.htm

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Abstract

Objective: To determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy (ACH) influences cancer-specific mortality, bladder cancer-specific mortality, and other-cause mortality in patients with locally advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) following radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) through the use of competing risk analysis.

Methods: Among 785 patients with UTUC who underwent RNU from 1994 through 2015, we analyzed 338 individuals with locally advanced UTUC (pathologic T3-T4 and/or positive lymph nodes) without distant metastases. Patients were classified into two groups according to receipt of ACH. We performed a 1:1 propensity score-matching analysis between the ACH and no ACH group. The study endpoints were UTUC- and other cause-specific survivals. The association of potential risk factors with outcome was tested with the Fine and Gray regression model.

Results: During a median follow-up duration of 31.5 months, rates of UTUC- and other cause-mortalities were 32.9% (n = 79) and 8.7% (n = 21), respectively. Of note, there were no significant differences in overall survival between the observation and ACH groups according to the competing risks of death (UTUC and other causes of death). Multivariate analysis showed that only older age at surgery (≥ 65 years; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.73), multifocality (HR = 1.74), and tumor size (HR = 1.92) remained as poor predictors of UTUC-specific survival. Additionally, positive surgical margin was only identified as independent predictor of other causes of death (HR = 4.23).

Conclusion: In summary, postoperative chemotherapy failed to improve UTUC- and other cause-specific survival rates, based on competing risk analysis after propensity score-matching.

Keywords: Upper urinary tract cancer, Locally-advanced, Adjuvant chemotherapy, Competing risk analysis, Propensity score-matching.