J Cancer 2019; 10(16):3657-3664. doi:10.7150/jca.32716

Research Paper

Pre-treatment Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Predicts Distant Metastasis and Poor Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Guoxian Long, Wenhua Tang, Xiugen Fu, DongBo Liu, LinLi Zhang, Guangyuan Hu, Guoqing Hu, Wei Sun

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, Wuhan 430030, People's Republic of China.

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Long G, Tang W, Fu X, Liu D, Zhang L, Hu G, Hu G, Sun W. Pre-treatment Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Predicts Distant Metastasis and Poor Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. J Cancer 2019; 10(16):3657-3664. doi:10.7150/jca.32716. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v10p3657.htm

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Background: Pre-treatment serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has emerged as prognostic factor for many cancers. In this study, we evaluated the value of LDH in predicting distant metastasis and poor survival for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Methods: Clinical data from 172 non-metastatic NPC patients were retrospectively collected and serum LDH levels were routinely measured before treatment. The independent-samples t test was used to calculate differences between serum LDH levels from the various patient groups. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to select the optimal cutoff points. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were adopted to calculate and compare the distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) rates. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to carry out univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: NPC patients progressed with distant metastasis often have higher pre-treatment serum LDH levels than those did not develop distant metastasis (mean LDH level was 237.1U/L and 108.8U/L, respectively, p=0.001). Elevated LDH level was identified as an independent prognostic factor for poor DMFS (hazard ratio (HR), 8.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.44-28.32; p=0.001) and OS (HR, 4.45; 95% CI, 1.77-11.21; p=0.002). Moreover, subgroup analyses revealed significant associations between serum LDH level and worse survival in advanced stage patients.

Conclusions: Pre-treatment serum LDH level can predict distant metastasis and associate with the poor survival in patients with NPC.

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, lactate dehydrogenase, distant metastasis, survival.