1. Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China
2. Division of Neurosurgery, Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
Background: Population-based estimates of the incidence and prognosis of metastatic disease at the initial diagnosis of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors are currently lacking.
Methods: A total of 43,455 patients diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor were enrolled to evaluate metastatic rates utilizing the data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze the risk factors associated with the presence of metastasis at the first visit of patients with metastatic medulloblastoma (MB), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific death (CSD) of patients with these four CNS tumors were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression.
Results: In patients with primary CNS embryonal tumors, the metastatic rates of patients with MB and ATRT were 14.51% and 19.25%, respectively. The metastatic rate for MB patients aged 0 to 18 years was 16.69%. In the patients with glioma, the metastatic rates of patients with PA and GBM were 1.55% and 1.39%, respectively. On multivariate logistic regression among patients with glioma, GBM (vs PA; OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.37 to 3.30; P=0.001) was associated with greater odds of having metastatic disease at diagnosis. On multivariate logistic regression among patients with GBM, MB, or ATRT, MB (vs GBM; OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 2.81 to 7.72; P<0.001) and ATRT (vs GBM; OR, 5.65; 95% CI, 3.27 to 9.75; P<0.001) were associated with greater odds of having metastatic disease at diagnosis. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for CSD among patients with metastatic GBM or MB at diagnosis, gross total resection/total lobectomy (vs partial resection/partial lobectomy) was not related to a decreased or an increased risk of CSD. In patients with metastatic ATRT, compared to no surgery, gross total resection/total lobectomy or partial resection/partial lobectomy was not associated with a decreased risk of CSD.
Conclusions: The findings in this study provide a population-based estimate of the incidence and prognosis of metastatic disease at the initial diagnosis of primary CNS tumors. These survival outcomes are relevant because they will help to prioritize future research directions to improve the treatment strategies of these metastatic CNS tumors.
Keywords: metastatic central nervous system tumors, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma multiforme, pilocytic astrocytoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor