J Cancer 2019; 10(1):186-191. doi:10.7150/jca.25366 This issue
1. Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
2. Department of Radiation Oncology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
3. Department of Radiation Oncology, Myongji Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
4. Department of Surgery, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
5. Department of Surgery, Hanyang university Hanmaeum Changwon Hospital, Changwon, South Korea
*Song Ee Park and Jin Hwa Choi Contributed equally to this work.
Purpose: The aim of the preliminary study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4-week chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil and leucovorin (LV5FU2) during the resting periods between preoperative CRT and surgery in patients with LARC.
Materials and Methods: Standard preoperative CRT was delivered to the entire pelvis at a total dose of 5040 Gy of radiation with concurrent 5-FU or capecitabine for 6 weeks. Twenty-three patients received additional preoperative chemotherapy with two cycles of 5-FU and LV (LV 200 mg/m2 and 5-FU bolus 400 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU infusion 2400 mg/m2 for 46 hrs, every 2 weeks) after preoperative CRT. Surgery was performed at 2-4 weeks following the completion of preoperative chemotherapy.
Results: Between May 2013 and January 2015, 23 patients underwent preoperative CRT, with additional chemotherapy and surgery, and 23 patients completed the scheduled treatment. The median follow-up duration was 42.0 months. The tumor down-staging rate was observed in 65.2%, and pathologic complete remission (pCR) was noted in 5 patients (21.7%). T and N down-staging were observed in 16 (69.6%) and 14 (60.9%) patients, respectively. The four-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 73.9% and the four-year overall survival (OS) rate was 90.9% in patients who received additional chemotherapy. The four-year DFS rate was 100% in the tumor down-staging group vs. 25.0% in the non-down staging group treated with additional chemotherapy (P <0.001). There was also a significant difference of the four-year OS rate 100% in the tumor down-staging group compared with 71.4% in the non-down staging group (P = 0.031).
Conclusions: This preliminary study showed that additional preoperative chemotherapy with LV5FU2 was well tolerable and had an improvement in the downstaging rate and survival. Randomized controlled trial of this strategy is encouraged for definitive conclusions.
Keywords: rectal cancer, preoperative therapy, chemotherapy, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (LV)