1. Department of Medicine (Division of Genomic Medicine), The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC
2. Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University), Changsha, Hunan, China
3. Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University), Changsha, Hunan, China
4. Hepatobiliary and enteric Surgery Research Center/Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
5. Department of Surgery, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC
Liver metastasis is a primary factor of prognosis and long-term survival for patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). Colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM), is a complex biological process involving multiple factors and steps, and its mechanisms are yet to be discovered. In recent years, small noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven to play an important role in tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers, including CRC. Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs, including those from exosomes secreted by tumor cells in circulation, could be used as promising biomarkers in early cancer detection, treatment, and prognosis. In this review, we focus on the functional roles and clinical applications of miRNAs, especially those from circulating exosomes secreted by tumor cells related to CRCLM.
Keywords: Colorectal cancer (CRC), liver metastasis, miRNAs, exosome