J Cancer 2018; 9(17):3101-3108. doi:10.7150/jca.27206

Research Paper

Clinical Value of Combining 18F-FDG PET/CT and Routine Serum Tumor Markers in The Early Detection of Recurrence Among Follow-up Patients Treated for Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Rajiv Rai Sookha1, Wenhua Zhi1, Yanxia Shen2, Cordelle Lazare1, Ling Wang1, Yifan Meng1, Canhui Cao1, Junbo Hu1, Peng Wu1✉

1. The Key Laboratory of Cancer Invasion and Metastasis of the Ministry of Education of China, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R. China.
2. Department of Nuclear medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.

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Citation:
Sookha RR, Zhi W, Shen Y, Lazare C, Wang L, Meng Y, Cao C, Hu J, Wu P. Clinical Value of Combining 18F-FDG PET/CT and Routine Serum Tumor Markers in The Early Detection of Recurrence Among Follow-up Patients Treated for Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma. J Cancer 2018; 9(17):3101-3108. doi:10.7150/jca.27206. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v09p3101.htm

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Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the role of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and evaluate if combined elevated serum tumor markers levels improve the accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

Methods: A total number of 42 patients who were treated for cervical squamous cell carcinoma and had underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for suspected recurrence of cervical cancer were retrospectively reviewed in this study and their clinical, pathological and serological data were collected and analyzed. The clinical value of combining 18F-FDG PET/CT with serum tumor markers was investigated.

Results: Among the 42 patients, 18F-FDG PET/CT was true positive in 25 (59.5%), false positive in 5 (11.9%), true negative in 12 (28.5%) and false negative in none. The overall patient-based sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting recurrent cervical cancer were 100%, 70.6, 88.1%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. The accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT with combined squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) elevation was 100% compared to only SCC Ag elevation and only CEA elevation, 90% and 33.3%, respectively. The positive predictive value of a positive 18F-FDG PET/CT with combined SCC Ag and CEA elevation was 100% for detection of recurrent cervical cancer. Also, the negative predictive value of a negative 18F-FDG PET/CT combined with normal SCC Ag and CEA levels was 100%.

Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT is highly sensitive in the diagnosis of recurrent cervical cancer. When 18F-FDG PET/CT is associated with both SCC Ag and CEA elevation or only SCC Ag elevation, the accuracy is increased but not when associated with only CEA elevation. Positive 18F-FDG PET/CT associated with both tumor markers elevation can precisely predict recurrence. Moreover, normal levels of both tumor markers with a negative 18F-FDG PET/CT result may clinically reassure that a recurrence is absent.

Keywords: Cervical cancer, recurrence, 18F-FDG PET/CT, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen