J Cancer 2018; 9(13):2408-2414. doi:10.7150/jca.24236

Research Paper

Comparison of vascularity observed using contrast-enhanced 3D ultrasonography and pathological changes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after sorafenib treatment

Hiroyuki Fukuda1✉, Kazushi Numata1, Koji Hara1, Akito Nozaki1, Masaaki Kondo1, Makoto Chuma1, Masayuki Nakano1, Akinori Nozawa2, Shin Maeda3, Katsuaki Tanaka1

1. Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024, Japan
2. Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024, Japan
3. Department of Gastroenterology, Yokohama City University, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0004, Japan

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Citation:
Fukuda H, Numata K, Hara K, Nozaki A, Kondo M, Chuma M, Nakano M, Nozawa A, Maeda S, Tanaka K. Comparison of vascularity observed using contrast-enhanced 3D ultrasonography and pathological changes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after sorafenib treatment. J Cancer 2018; 9(13):2408-2414. doi:10.7150/jca.24236. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v09p2408.htm

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Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare vascularity observed using contrast-enhanced 3D ultrasonography and pathological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and surrounding non-tumorous areas after sorafenib treatment.

Materials and methods: Twelve patients with HCC were enrolled in this clinical study. The maximum tumor diameter as measured using sonography ranged from 15 to 33 mm (mean, 24.0 mm; SD, 5.7 mm). Assessments using contrast-enhanced (0.2 mL of Sonazoid suspension; Daiichi Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan) 3D ultrasonography (LOGIQ 7; GE Healthcare, Milwaukee) were performed in all the patients before and 1 week after sorafenib treatment. The microvessel density (MVD) of the HCC and surrounding non-tumorous area was evaluated based on the immunohistochemical staining of microvessels using an antigen for CD34.

Results: Blood flow in the tumor was decreased in all 12 cases after sorafenib treatment. The MVD of the tumorous area at 1 week after sorafenib administration (38.8 ± 5.2) was significantly lower than that observed before sorafenib administration (72.4 ± 13.0) (P < 0.01). Blood flow in the non-tumorous area had decreased in 6 cases at 1 week after sorafenib treatment and had not changed in the 6 other cases. In the reduced blood flow group, the MVD of the non-tumorous area at 1 week after sorafenib administration had decreased significantly, compared with the MVD of the non-tumorous area before sorafenib administration. However, in the group with no change in blood flow, the MVD of the non-tumorous area at 1 week after sorafenib treatment had not changed, compared with the MVD of the non-tumorous area before sorafenib treatment.

Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced 3D ultrasonography studies showed a correlation between vascularity and pathological changes in human HCC and the surrounding non-tumorous area after sorafenib treatment.

Keywords: sorafenib, hepatocellular carcinoma, contrast-enhanced 3D ultrasonography