J Cancer 2017; 8(15):2899-2906. doi:10.7150/jca.20107
In Surgical Colon Cancer Patients Extended-Duration Thromboprophylaxis (30 days) with the Highest Dose of Tinzaparin (4,500 IU s.c./q.d.) Normalizes the Postoperative VEGF Levels
1. Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece;
2. Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece;
3. Unit of Molecular Biology of the Haematology Laboratory, University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece.
#The first two authors (MM and PK) are co-first authors, as they have contributed equally to this study.
Mitsis M, Koliou P, Bali C, Ntounousi E, Tatsis V, Nousias V, Lianos GD, Vartholomatos G, Nastos D. In Surgical Colon Cancer Patients Extended-Duration Thromboprophylaxis (30 days) with the Highest Dose of Tinzaparin (4,500 IU s.c./q.d.) Normalizes the Postoperative VEGF Levels. J Cancer 2017; 8(15):2899-2906. doi:10.7150/jca.20107. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v08p2899.htm
Background/Purpose: In colon cancer (CC) patients preoperative (pre-op) levels of VEGF-A165 (VEGF) is a strong predictor for disease recurrence. Elevated postoperative (post-op) VEGF levels could have undesirable effects by enhancing tumor growth and metastasis formation. It has been suggested that thromboprophylaxis with a Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) in surgical cancer patients, further to thromboembolic protection, may exert some anti-neoplastic properties, as well. The aim of our study was to assess the potential impact of the LMWH Tinzaparin (Innohep® - Leo Pharma, Copenhagen, Denmark), given at different doses and for different perioperative (peri-op) periods, upon the post-op variability of serum VEGF levels in surgical CC patients.
Methods: A total of 54 consecutive CC patients who underwent a curative resection were randomized in four groups according to their peri-op thromboprophylaxis scheme, which was based on administrating Tinzaparin in different doses and at different periods, as follows: group I: 3,500 IU for 10 days, group II: 3,500 IU for 30 days, group III: 4,500 IU for 10 days and group IV: 4,500 IU for 30 days. Serum VEGF concentrations were evaluated on the pre-op day (Day 0) and on the 10th and 30th post-op days (Day 10 and Day 30, respectively). For statistical analyses the mixed design ANOVA was used. P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: On Day 0, VEGF didn't differ between groups I, II, III and IV (p>0.05, for every comparison). On Day 10, VEGF was increased in all groups. Between Day 10 and Day 30, VEGF remained stable in groups I (p=0.031) and II (p=1.000) and increased significantly in group III (p=0.005). On the contrary, VEGF decreased significantly in group IV (p<0.001). The most remarkable finding was observed when we compared VEGF between Day 0 and Day 30: while in groups I, II and III, VEGF remained significantly higher compared to Day 0 (p<0.001, p=0.041 and p<0.001, respectively), on the contrary, in group IV (extended-duration with the highest dose of 4,500 IU of tinzaparin) it was comparable to Day 0 (p=1.000).
Conclusions: In surgical CC patients only the recommended thromboprophylaxis scheme with the highest prophylactic dose of Tinzaparin (4,500 IU) for extended-duration (30 days) normalizes VEGF levels at the end of the first post-op month by reducing them to the pre-op levels.
Keywords: colon cancer, tinzaparin, thromboprophylaxis, VEGF, angiogenesis.