J Cancer 2015; 6(5):482-489. doi:10.7150/jca.11665

Research Paper

Hyponatremia in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating with Cirrhosis

Hiroki Nishikawa, Ryuichi Kita, Toru Kimura, Yoshiaki Ohara, Azusa Sakamoto, Sumio Saito, Norihiro Nishijima, Akihiro Nasu, Hideyuki Komekado, Yukio Osaki

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Osaka, Japan

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Nishikawa H, Kita R, Kimura T, Ohara Y, Sakamoto A, Saito S, Nishijima N, Nasu A, Komekado H, Osaki Y. Hyponatremia in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating with Cirrhosis. J Cancer 2015; 6(5):482-489. doi:10.7150/jca.11665. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v06p0482.htm

File import instruction


Background and aims: We aimed to investigate the effect of serum sodium level on survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients complicating with liver cirrhosis (LC).

Methods: A total of 1170 HCC patients with LC were analysed. We classified these patients into three groups according to serum sodium level at HCC diagnosis: group A (n=96); serum sodium ≤135 mmol/L, group B (n=520); 135 mmol/L < serum sodium ≤140 mmol/L, group C (n=554); serum sodium >140 mmol/L. We compared the baseline characteristics and overall survival (OS) among these three groups. Furthermore, we examined the factors linked to OS using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: In our results, decreased baseline serum sodium level was significantly associated with Child-Pugh classification and HCC stage along with several laboratory parameters in groups A, B and C. The median follow-up period was 1.1 years in group A, 2.4 years in group B and 3.3 years in group C. The 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative OS rates in groups A, B and C were 64.8%, 46.9% and 25.7%, respectively, in group A, 85.5%, 60.5% and 41.1%, respectively, in group B and 90.7%, 66.6% and 48.2%, respectively, in group C (P<0.001). The multivariate analyses showed that Child-Pugh classification (P<0.001), HCC stage (P<0.001), serum sodium (P<0.001), aspartate aminotransferase ≥57 IU/L (P=0.002), alkaline phosphatase ≥348 IU/L (P<0.001), alpha-fetoprotein ≥29.2 ng/mL (P=0.019) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin ≥55 mAU/mL (P<0.001) were significant independent predictors linked to OS.

Conclusion: Lower serum sodium concentration is a useful predictor in HCC patients complicating with LC.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Liver cirrhosis, Serum sodium, Prognosis