J Cancer 2015; 6(5):482-489. doi:10.7150/jca.11665
Hyponatremia in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating with Cirrhosis
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Osaka, Japan
Nishikawa H, Kita R, Kimura T, Ohara Y, Sakamoto A, Saito S, Nishijima N, Nasu A, Komekado H, Osaki Y. Hyponatremia in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating with Cirrhosis. J Cancer 2015; 6(5):482-489. doi:10.7150/jca.11665. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v06p0482.htm
Background and aims: We aimed to investigate the effect of serum sodium level on survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients complicating with liver cirrhosis (LC).
Methods: A total of 1170 HCC patients with LC were analysed. We classified these patients into three groups according to serum sodium level at HCC diagnosis: group A (n=96); serum sodium ≤135 mmol/L, group B (n=520); 135 mmol/L < serum sodium ≤140 mmol/L, group C (n=554); serum sodium >140 mmol/L. We compared the baseline characteristics and overall survival (OS) among these three groups. Furthermore, we examined the factors linked to OS using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results: In our results, decreased baseline serum sodium level was significantly associated with Child-Pugh classification and HCC stage along with several laboratory parameters in groups A, B and C. The median follow-up period was 1.1 years in group A, 2.4 years in group B and 3.3 years in group C. The 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative OS rates in groups A, B and C were 64.8%, 46.9% and 25.7%, respectively, in group A, 85.5%, 60.5% and 41.1%, respectively, in group B and 90.7%, 66.6% and 48.2%, respectively, in group C (P<0.001). The multivariate analyses showed that Child-Pugh classification (P<0.001), HCC stage (P<0.001), serum sodium (P<0.001), aspartate aminotransferase ≥57 IU/L (P=0.002), alkaline phosphatase ≥348 IU/L (P<0.001), alpha-fetoprotein ≥29.2 ng/mL (P=0.019) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin ≥55 mAU/mL (P<0.001) were significant independent predictors linked to OS.
Conclusion: Lower serum sodium concentration is a useful predictor in HCC patients complicating with LC.
Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Liver cirrhosis, Serum sodium, Prognosis