Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, P.R. China.
Background: Nowadays, the characteristics and treatment of advanced pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) remain controversial. This study aimed to analyze the similarity of clinical characteristics, survival outcomes and treatment modalities between advanced LCNEC and advanced small cell lung cancer (SCLC) to provide more evidence for the study of advanced LCNEC.
Methods: All SCLC and LCNEC patient data were obtained from the SEER database (2010-2019). Pearson's χ2 test was used to compare the differences in clinical characteristics. Propensity score matching (PSM) was utilized to balance the bias of the variables between patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors. KM analysis was used to calculate survival.
Results: A total of 1094 patients with IV LCNEC and 20939 patients with IV SCLC were included in this study. The demographic characteristics and tumor characteristics of IV LCNEC and IV SCLC were different (p < 0.05). After PSM, the overall survival (OS) for IV LCNEC and IV SCLC was 6.0 months, the cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 7.0 months, and there was no significant difference in OS or CSS between the two groups. Risk/protective factors for OS and CSS were similar for IV LCNEC and IV SCLC patients. Survival outcomes were similar in patients with IV LCNEC and IV SCLC with different treatment modalities; chemoradiotherapy significantly improved OS and CSS in patients with IV LCNEC (9.0 months) and SCLC (10.0 months), however, radiotherapy alone did not improve survival in patients with IV LCNEC.
Conclusions: These results confirmed that the prognosis and treatment modalities are similar and that advanced LCNEC could be treated as advanced SCLC, which provide new evidence for the treatment of advanced LCNEC patients.
Keywords: large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, small cell lung cancer, advanced, propensity score matching analysis, SEER database.