J Cancer 2019; 10(6):1398-1408. doi:10.7150/jca.29571

Research Paper

The Identification of Potential Biomarkers and Biological Pathways in Prostate Cancer

Zhengshuai Song1,2*, Yu Huang1*, Ye Zhao3,*, Hailong Ruan1, Hongmei Yang4, Qi Cao1, Di Liu1, Xiaoping Zhang1✉, Ke Chen1✉

1. Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China;
2. Department of Urology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology;
3. Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China;
4. Department of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, P.R. China
*Contributed equally

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Citation:
Song Z, Huang Y, Zhao Y, Ruan H, Yang H, Cao Q, Liu D, Zhang X, Chen K. The Identification of Potential Biomarkers and Biological Pathways in Prostate Cancer. J Cancer 2019; 10(6):1398-1408. doi:10.7150/jca.29571. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v10p1398.htm

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Abstract

Purpose: The present study aims to explore the potential mechanisms contributing to prostate cancer (PCa), screen the hub genes, and identify potential biomarkers and correlated pathways of PCa progression.

Methods: The PCa gene expression profile GSE3325 was operated to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DAVID was used to evaluate Gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to visualize interactions of the hub genes. The prognostic and diagnostic analysis of these hub genes was carried out to evaluate their potential effects on PCa.

Results: A total of 847 DEGs were identified (427 upregulated genes and 420 downregulated genes). Meanwhile, top15 hub genes were showed. GO analysis displayed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in cell cycle, DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest and proteinaceous extracellular matrix. KEGG analysis indicated the DEGs were enriched in the p53 signaling pathway and cell cycle pathway. The GO and KEGG enrichment analyses for the DEGs disclosed important biological features of PCa. PPI network showed the interaction of top 15 hub genes. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed that some of the hub genes were associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) and metastasis of PCa. Some top hub genes were distinctive and new discoveries compared with that of the existing associated researches.

Conclusions: Our analysis revealed that the changes of cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway are two major signatures of PCa. CENPA, KIF20A and CDCA8 might promote the tumorigenesis and progression of PCa, especially in BCR and metastasis, which could be novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis of PCa.

Keywords: prostate cancer, biomarker, biological pathway, biochemical recurrence