J Cancer 2018; 9(17):3084-3092. doi:10.7150/jca.26422

Review

Exosome-related tumor microenvironment

Cheng Hu1,2, Meijuan Chen1,2, Rilei Jiang1,2, Yuanyuan Guo1,2, Mianhua Wu2, Xu Zhang1,2✉

1. School of Medicine and Life Sciences , Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, P.R. China
2. Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Prevention and Treatment of Tumor, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, P.R. China

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Citation:
Hu C, Chen M, Jiang R, Guo Y, Wu M, Zhang X. Exosome-related tumor microenvironment. J Cancer 2018; 9(17):3084-3092. doi:10.7150/jca.26422. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v09p3084.htm

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Abstract

The tumor microenvironment (tumor cells are located in the internal and external environment) is vital for the occurrence, growth and metastasis of tumors. An increasing number of studies have shown that exosomes are closely related to the tumor microenvironment. The mechanisms involved, however, are unclear. The focus of this review is on the exosome-related tumor microenvironment and other relevant factors, such as hypoxia, inflammation and angiogenesis. Many studies have suggested that exosomes are important mediators of metastasis, angiogenesis, and immune modulation in the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, exosomes can be isolated from bodily fluids of cancer patients, including urine, blood, saliva, milk, tumor effusion, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid and so on. Consequently, exosomes are potential biomarkers for clinical predictions and are also good drug carriers because they can cross the biofilm without triggering an immune response. Collectively, these findings illustrate that exosomes are crucial for developing potential targets for a new generation of pharmaceutical therapies that would improve the tumor microenvironment.

Keywords: exosome, tumor microenvironment, angiogenesis, hypoxia, inflammation