J Cancer 2011; 2:363-368. doi:10.7150/jca.2.363
Cytokine Induced Killer Cells as Promising Immunotherapy for Solid Tumors
Laboratory of Cell Therapy of Cancer, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Torino), Italy
Sangiolo D. Cytokine Induced Killer Cells as Promising Immunotherapy for Solid Tumors. J Cancer 2011; 2:363-368. doi:10.7150/jca.2.363. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v02p0363.htm
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous subset of ex-vivo expanded T lymphocytes which present a mixed T-NK phenotype and are endowed with a MHC-unrestricted antitumor activity. The main functional properties of CIK cells may address some of the main limitations that are currently preventing the successful clinical translation of adoptive immunotherapy strategies. Clinically adequate quantities of immune effectors, sufficient for multiple adoptive infusions, may be obtained based on their relatively easy and inexpensive ex-vivo expansion starting from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The MHC-unrestricted tumor-killing is mainly based on the interaction between NKG2D molecules on CIK cells and MIC A/B or ULBPs molecules on tumor cells; it has been proved effective against several solid and hematological malignancies and does not require any HLA-restriction increasing the number of patients that might potentially benefit from such approach. Finally, CIK cells present a reduced alloreactivity across HLA-barriers with important clinical implications for their potential use as alternative to conventional Donor Lymphocyte Infusions after allogeneic hemopoietic cell transplant with a reduced risk of GVHD. In the present report we review the main functional characteristics of CIK cells discussing recent findings and future perspectives to improve their antitumor activity and potential clinical applications.
Keywords: CIK cells, adoptive immunotherapy, solid tumors.