J Cancer 2016; 7(5):523-531. doi:10.7150/jca.13821
Immunochemical Assays and Nucleic-Acid Detection Techniques for Clinical Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
School of Engineering, Ulster University, Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, BT37 0QB.
Kanyong P, Rawlinson S, Davis J. Immunochemical Assays and Nucleic-Acid Detection Techniques for Clinical Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer. J Cancer 2016; 7(5):523-531. doi:10.7150/jca.13821. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v07p0523.htm
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and the most common cancer in men in Europe, North America, and some parts of Africa. The established methods for detecting PCa are normally based on tests using Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in blood, Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) in urine and tissue Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) as tumour markers in patient samples. Prior to the introduction of PSA in clinics, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was the most widely used biomarker. An early diagnosis of PCa through the detection of these biomarkers requires the availability of simple, reliable, cost-effective and robust techniques. Immunoassays and nucleic acid detection techniques have experienced unprecedented growth in recent years and seem to be the most promising analytical tools. This growth has been driven in part by the surge in demand for near-patient-testing systems in clinical diagnosis. This article reviews immunochemical assays, and nucleic-acid detection techniques that have been used to clinically diagnose PCa.
Keywords: Prostate Cancer, Biopsy, Immunoassays, Clinical Diagnosis, PAP, PSA.