J Cancer 2016; 7(13):1892-1900. doi:10.7150/jca.15779

Research Paper

Statins Dose-Dependently Exert Significant Chemopreventive Effects Against Various Cancers in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Chun-Chao Chen1*, Yi-Ping Hsu1*, Ju-Chi Liu1,4*, Pai-Feng Kao1,4, Li-Chin Sung1,4, Chao-Feng Lin1, Wen-Rui Hao1, Shing-Hwa Liu2, Szu-Yuan Wu2,3,4,5✉

1. Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan
2. Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
3. Department of Radiation Oncology, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
4. Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
5. Department of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan.
*These authors contributed equally to this study (joint first authors).

Abstract

PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased cancer risk. We evaluated the chemopreventive effect of statins against all cancers in COPD patients and identified the statin with the strongest chemopreventive effect.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients diagnosed with COPD at health care facilities in Taiwan (n = 116,017) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2012, were recruited. Each patient was followed to assess the following protective and risk factors for all cancers: age; sex; comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and the Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]); urbanization level; monthly income; and nonstatin drug use. The index date of statins use was the date of COPD confirmation. Propensity scores (PSs) were derived using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of statins by considering the covariates predicting intervention (statins) receipt. To examine the dose-response relationship, we categorized statin use into four groups in each cohort (<28 [statin nonusers], 28-90, 91-365, and >365 cumulative defined daily dose).

RESULTS: After PS adjustment for age, sex, CCI, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, urbanization level, and monthly income, we analyzed the all-cancer risk. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for the all-cancer risk were lower among statin users than among statin nonusers (aHR = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 0.50). The aHRs for the all-cancer risk were lower among patients using rosuvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin than among statin nonusers (aHRs = 0.42, 0.55, 0.59, 0.66, and 0.78, respectively). Sensitivity analysis indicated that statins dose-dependently reduced the all-cancer risk.

CONCLUSION: Statins dose-dependently exert a significant chemopreventive effect against various cancers in COPD patients. In particular, rosuvastatin has the strongest chemopreventive effect.

Keywords: statin, COPD, cancer.

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How to cite this article:
Chen CC, Hsu YP, Liu JC, Kao PF, Sung LC, Lin CF, Hao WR, Liu SH, Wu SY. Statins Dose-Dependently Exert Significant Chemopreventive Effects Against Various Cancers in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study. J Cancer 2016; 7(13):1892-1900. doi:10.7150/jca.15779. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v07p1892.htm