J Cancer 2016; 7(13):1867-1876. doi:10.7150/jca.16316

Research Paper

Senescence Process in Primary Wilms' Tumor Cell Culture Induced by p53 Independent p21 Expression

Korkiat Theerakitthanakul1, Jirakrit Saetang1, Jirasak Kruatong1, Potchanapond Graidist1, Pritsana Raungrut1, Kanita Kayasut2, Surasak Sangkhathat3✉

1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110;
2. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110;
3. Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110.

Abstract

Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonal tumor occurring in developing kidney tissue. WT cells showing invasive cancer characteristics, also retain renal stem cell behaviours. In-vitro culture of WT is hampered by limited replicative potential. This study aimed to establish a longterm culture of WT cells to enable the study of molecular events to attempt to explain its cellular senescence. Methods: Primary cell cultures from fresh WT tumor specimen were established. Of 5 cultures tried, only 1 could be propagated for more than 7 passages. One culture, identified as PSU-SK-1, could be maintained > 35 passages and was then subjected to molecular characterization and evaluation for cancer characteristics. The cells consistently harbored concomitant mutations of CTNNB1 (Ser45Pro) and WT1 (Arg413Stop) thorough the cultivation. On Transwell invasion assays, the cells exhibited migration and invasion at 55% and 27% capability of the lung cancer cells, A549. On gelatin zymography, PSU-SK-1 showed high expression of the matrix metaloproteinase. The cells exhibited continuous proliferation with 24-hour doubling time until passages 28-30 when the growth slowed, showing increased cell size, retention of cells in G1/S proportion and positive β-galactosidase staining. As with those evidence of senescence in advanced cell passages, expression of p21 and cyclin D1 increased when the expression of β-catenin and its downstream protein, TCF, declined. There was also loss-of-expression of p53 in this cell line. In conclusion, cellular senescence was responsible for limited proliferation in the primary culture of WT, which was also associated with increased expression of p21 and was independent of p53 expression. Decreased activation of the Wnt signalling might explain the induction of p21 expression.

Keywords: Wilms tumor, Primary cell culture, Senescence.

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How to cite this article:
Theerakitthanakul K, Saetang J, Kruatong J, Graidist P, Raungrut P, Kayasut K, Sangkhathat S. Senescence Process in Primary Wilms' Tumor Cell Culture Induced by p53 Independent p21 Expression. J Cancer 2016; 7(13):1867-1876. doi:10.7150/jca.16316. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v07p1867.htm