J Cancer 2016; 7(12):1587-1598. doi:10.7150/jca.16012
African American Race is an Independent Risk Factor in Survival from Initially Diagnosed Localized Breast Cancer
1. Department of Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School and the New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences;
2. Rutgers Institute for Data Science, Learning, and Applications and the Center for Information Management, Integration, and Connectivity, Rutgers Newark.
BACKGROUND: African American race negatively impacts survival from localized breast cancer but co-variable factors confound the impact.
METHODS: Data sets were analyzed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) directories from 1973 to 2011 consisting of patients with designated diagnosis of breast adenocarcinoma, race as White or Caucasian, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, age, stage I, II or III, grade 1, 2 or 3, estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive or negative, marital status as single, married, separated, divorced or widowed and laterality as right or left. The Cox Proportional Hazards Regression model was used to determine hazard ratios for survival. Chi square test was applied to determine the interdependence of variables found significant in the multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards Regression analysis. Cells with stratified data of patients with identical characteristics except African American or Caucasian race were compared.
RESULTS: Age, stage, grade, ER and PR status and marital status significantly co-varied with race and with each other. Stratifications by single co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans. Stratification by three and four co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans in most subgroupings with sufficient numbers of values. Differences in some subgroupings containing poor prognostic co-variables did not reach significance, suggesting that race effects may be partly overcome by additional poor prognostic indicators.
CONCLUSIONS: African American race is a poor prognostic indicator for survival from breast cancer independent of 6 associated co-variables with prognostic significance.
Keywords: Breast Cancer, African American Race, Risk factor, confounding co-variables, survival.
Wieder R, Shafiq B, Adam N. African American Race is an Independent Risk Factor in Survival from Initially Diagnosed Localized Breast Cancer. J Cancer 2016; 7(12):1587-1598. doi:10.7150/jca.16012. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v07p1587.htm