J Cancer 2016; 7(3):335-343. doi:10.7150/jca.12943

Research Paper

Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

Nerea Larrañaga1,2*, Mª José Sanchez3,2*✉, Eva Ardanaz4,5,2*, Saray Felipe6, Rafael Marcos-Gragera7, María Ramos8, Marià Carulla9, Mª Dolores Chirlaque10,2, Marcial V. Argüelles11, Carmen Martos2,12, Antonio Mateo13, Rafael Peris-Bonet6,14

1. Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, Basque Health Department, Spain. Avda de Navarra 4, 20008-San Sebastian, Spain.
2. CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain.
3. Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública. Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA. Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
4. Navarre Public Health Institute, Pamplona, Spain. C) Leyre 15, Pamplona, 31003, Spain.
5. Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA) Pamplona, Spain
6. Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumours (RTI-SEHOP), Spanish Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, and University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Avda. Blasco Ibáñez, 15. 46010-Valencia.
7. Epidemiology Unit and Girona Cancer Registry (Oncology Coordination Plan). Department of Health, Autonomous Government of Catalonia, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Girona, Spain.
8. Registre de càncer de Mallorca. Direcció General de Salut Pública. Illes Balears, Spain.
9. Tarragona Cancer Registry, Fundació Lliga per a la Investigació i Prevenció del Càncer. IISPV, Reus. Spain.
10. Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Authority, IMIB-Arrixaca Murcia, Spain.
11. Asturias Cancer Registry. Public Health Directorate, Asturias (Spain).
12. Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud. Zaragoza, Spain.
13. Albacete Cancer Registry, Health and Social Welfare Authority, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
14. RTICC-Spanish Cancer Research Network, ISCiii, RD12/0036/0053, Spain.
* contributed equally to this study.

Abstract

Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain.

Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis.

Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase.

Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence in adolescents increased significantly over the whole period 1983-2007. Several specific tumour groups showed significant rises or decrements in childhood or adolescence, although the small number of cases precludes showing significant trends or inflexion points.

Keywords: cancer, solid tumour, childhood, adolescents, population-based study, incidence, Spain.

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How to cite this article:
Larrañaga N, Sanchez MJ, Ardanaz E, Felipe S, Marcos-Gragera R, Ramos M, Carulla M, Chirlaque MD, Argüelles MV, Martos C, Mateo A, Peris-Bonet R. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries. J Cancer 2016; 7(3):335-343. doi:10.7150/jca.12943. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v07p0335.htm