J Cancer 2015; 6(1):19-28. doi:10.7150/jca.9591

Research Paper

Upregulation of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b Mediates the Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Melatonin in Hypoxic PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

Eun Jung Sohn1, Gunho Won1, Jihyun Lee1, Sangyoon Lee2, Sung-hoon Kim1 ✉

1. College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, South Korea.
2. Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Recently microRNAs (miRNAs) have been attractive targets with their key roles in biological regulation through post-transcription to control mRNA stability and protein translation. Though melatonin was known as an anti-angiogenic agent, the underlying mechanism of melatonin in PC-3 prostate cancer cells under hypoxia still remains unclear. Thus, in the current study, we elucidated the important roles of miRNAs in melatonin-induced anti-angiogenic activity in hypoxic PC-3 cells. miRNA array revealed that 33 miRNAs (>2 folds) including miRNA3195 and miRNA 374b were significantly upregulated and 16 miRNAs were downregulated in melatonin-treated PC-3 cells under hypoxia compared to untreated control. Melatonin significantly attenuated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha, HIF-2 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at mRNA level in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Consistently, melatonin enhanced the expression of miRNA3195 and miRNA 374b in hypoxic PC-3 cells by qRT-PCR analysis. Of note, overexpression of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b mimics attenuated the mRNA levels of angiogenesis related genes such as HIF-1alpha, HIF-2 alpha and VEGF in PC-3 cells under hypoxia. Furthermore, overexpression of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b suppressed typical angiogenic protein VEGF at the protein level and VEGF production induced by melatonin, while antisense oligonucleotides against miRNA 3195 or miRNA 374b did not affect VEGF production induced by melatonin. Also, overexpression of miR3195 or miR374b reduced HIF-1 alpha immunofluorescent expression in hypoxic PC-3 compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that upregulation of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b mediates anti-angiogenic property induced by melatonin in hypoxic PC-3 cells.

Keywords: melatonin, miRNA3195, miRNA374b, VEGF, HIF-1 alpha, PC-3 cells.

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How to cite this article:
Sohn EJ, Won G, Lee J, Lee S, Kim Sh. Upregulation of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b Mediates the Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Melatonin in Hypoxic PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells. J Cancer 2015; 6(1):19-28. doi:10.7150/jca.9591. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v06p0019.htm