J Cancer 2014; 5(7):559-571. doi:10.7150/jca.8925


Far Beyond the Usual Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: A Review

Brunna dos Anjos Pultz1, Felipe Andrés Cordero da Luz1, Paulo Rogério de Faria2, Ana Paula Lima Oliveira2, Rogério Agenor de Araújo3, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva1✉

1. Laboratório de Imunoparasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
2. Laboratório de Histologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
3. Setor de Oncologia - Hospital de Clínicas de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Research investigating biomarkers for early detection, prognosis and the prediction of treatment responses in breast cancer is rapidly expanding. However, no validated biomarker currently exists for use in routine clinical practice, and breast cancer detection and management remains dependent on invasive procedures. Histological examination remains the standard for diagnosis, whereas immunohistochemical and genetic tests are utilized for treatment decisions and prognosis determinations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of literature published in PubMed on breast cancer biomarkers between 2009 and 2013. The keywords that were used together were breast cancer, biomarkers, diagnosis, prognosis and drug response. The cited references of the manuscripts included in this review were also screened. We have comprehensively summarized the performance of several biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and predicted drug responses of breast cancer. Finally, we have identified 15 biomarkers that have demonstrated promise in initial studies and several miRNAs. At this point, such biomarkers must be rigorously validated in the clinical setting to be translated into clinically useful tests for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug responses of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, biomarkers, early diagnosis, prognosis, chemotherapy resistance.

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How to cite this article:
dos Anjos Pultz B, da Luz FAC, de Faria PR, Oliveira APL, de Araújo RA, Silva MJB. Far Beyond the Usual Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: A Review. J Cancer 2014; 5(7):559-571. doi:10.7150/jca.8925. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v05p0559.htm