J Cancer 2016; 7(12):1632-1644. doi:10.7150/jca.13123

Research Paper

Anti-inflammatory and Antitumor Activity of a Triple Therapy for a Colitis-Related Colorectal Cancer

Gabriela Figueroa-González1,2, Verónica García-Castillo1, Jossimar Coronel-Hernández1, Eduardo López-Urrutia1, Sonia León-Cabrera1,3, Luis E Arias-Romero1, LI Terrazas1, Miriam Rodríguez-Sosa1, Alma Delia Campos-Parra2, Eduardo Zúñiga-Calzada4, Cesar Lopez-Camarillo5, Fermín Morales-González6, Nadia J Jacobo-Herrera7✉, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia1,2✉

1. Unidad de Biomedicina, FES-Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. De Los Barrios, Los Reyes Iztacala, 54090 Tlalnepantla, Estado de México, México.
2. Laboratorio de Genómica, Dirección de Investigación, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología. Av. San Fernando 22, Tlalpan, Sección XVI, 14080 Ciudad de México.
3. Carrera de Médico Cirujano, FES-Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. De Los Barrios, Los Reyes Iztacala, 54090 Tlalnepantla, Estado de México, México.
4. Departamento de Anatomía Patológica, Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social del Estado de México y Municipios, Avenida del trabajo s/n, 55000, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de México.
5. Programa de Ciencias Genómicas, UACM, Ciudad de México.
6. Dirección Médica, Instituto Jalisciense de Cancerología. Coronel Calderón 715, Guadalajara, 44280 Jalisco.
7. Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán”, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Tlalpan, Sección XVI, 14000, Ciudad de México.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health issue worldwide, accounting for the third place of cancer incidence. Chronic inflammation, as seen in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is the most important risk factor for developing CRC, as it favours neoplastic transformation by enhancing epithelial cell turnover in the colonic mucosa. Treatments for CRC need to be improved; currently they are not specific and have several secondary effects in patients. The main objective of this work was to evaluate a new therapeutic strategy against a colitis-related colorectal cancer in vivo and in vitro by targeting mTOR-signaling and lactate dehydrogenase A. Together, these mechanisms directly affect tumor energetics. In this study we evaluated a better and more efficient triple therapy against a chronic inflammation-associated CRC in vivo and in vitro. After the development of tumors, mice were treated intraperitoneally during a forty-day period with single drugs or different combinations of Metformin, Sodium Oxamate and Doxorubicin.

Targeted inhibition of the mTOR pathway, lactate dehydrogenase A and the concurrent use of Doxorubicin (called in this work as triple therapy), leaded to a notable reduction in the number and size of tumors in mice, and, a significant pro-inflammatory cytokines reduction Besides, we showed that treated cells were induced to early autophagy, and apoptosis cell death.

Our results represent a novel and robust therapeutic strategy for overcoming CRC by means of targeting central molecular pathways in cancer by the combination of Metformin, Oxamate, and Doxorubicin leading to a rapid tumor growth inhibition and a dramatic colorectal crypt restoration. Besides, drug combination resulted in a notable reduction of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Keywords: Colorectal Cancer, Chronic Inflammation, Glycolysis, mTOR, Autophagy.

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How to cite this article:
Figueroa-González G, García-Castillo V, Coronel-Hernández J, López-Urrutia E, León-Cabrera S, Arias-Romero LE, Terrazas L, Rodríguez-Sosa M, Campos-Parra AD, Zúñiga-Calzada E, Lopez-Camarillo C, Morales-González F, Jacobo-Herrera NJ, Pérez-Plasencia C. Anti-inflammatory and Antitumor Activity of a Triple Therapy for a Colitis-Related Colorectal Cancer. J Cancer 2016; 7(12):1632-1644. doi:10.7150/jca.13123. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v07p1632.htm